(Kung Fu-Tse; Lu, present-day Shantung, China, h. 551 – 479 BC) Chinese thinker. Coming from a ruined noble family, throughout his life he alternated periods in which he worked as a teacher with others in which he served as an official of the small state of Lu, in the northeast of China, during the time of fragmentation of power under the Chu dynasty.

Confucius failed in his attempts to attract the princes, limiting his influence in life to the one he managed to exert directly on some disciples; the importance of the character comes from the later diffusion of his thought, known as Confucianism or Confucianism , fundamentally contained in his Interviews with him. Said thought can be interpreted as a response to the climate of disorder and continuous struggles between feudal lords that prevailed in the historical period in which he lived.

Confucianism is fundamentally an ethic and not a religion, since there is hardly any mention of divinity in it, since Confucius refused to speculate on the afterlife. In this sense, it is a gross error to relate his figure to the founders of the great religions ( Buddha , Jesus Christ or Mohammed ). The center of Confucius’s concerns was personal morality, both with regard to the orientation of private conduct and the norms of good government.

Said morality, based on altruism, tolerance, mutual respect, social harmony and the fulfillment of duty, actually constituted a systematization of ideas present in Chinese culture, which is why it spread easily and contributed to shaping Chinese culture. Chinese society and politics on a common basis. It is, consequently, a conservative thought, and in fact this is how Confucius presented it, placing in the past the «golden age» in which good principles had prevailed, to which the Chinese had to return.

Confucius reinforced the importance of the traditional family in Chinese society by insisting on children’s respect for their parents and women’s obedience to their husbands. He also reinforced the submission of the people to the authorities, although rejecting tyranny: the subjects owed obedience to the sovereign, since the State existed to seek the good of the governed; but, for the same reason, the governors had to govern according to correct ethical principles, applying the moral example and not the force. He dreamed of returning to an idealized past in which a wise and kind emperor (the «son of Heaven») would rule and be obeyed like a father by his children, in a general climate of peace and order.

Confucius believed in the existence of a perfect cosmic order, which should be imitated in human affairs, achieving harmony between the earth and Heaven, the intelligent force that governs the world. Despite his clearly conservative nature, Confucius’ thought had an innovative potential to the extent that he demanded a moral and benevolent government: he proclaimed that nobility did not come from birth but from moral superiority; and he left the door open for rebellion against immoral rulers.

Perhaps for this reason his ideas were not accepted by the leaders of the time, while they were spreading among the common people; Unsuccessfully pursued during the time of the Ts’in dynasty (221-206 BC), Confucianism became the official state philosophy under the Han dynasty (206 BC-220 AD). Since then, the selection system for personnel at the service of the State through competitive examinations made the study of the thought of Confucius and his followers one of the pillars of the formation of a cultured man, which opened the doors of bureaucracy and social promotion.

This moderate doctrine, strongly anchored in the traditional mentality, has marked the dominant ethic in China at least until the beginning of the 20th century and its influence continues to be perceptible to this day, despite the efforts of the communist authorities to eradicate it; its influence also spread to Japan, Korea and Vietnam as part of the cultural influence that these countries have generally received from neighboring China.

Phrases

-Do not do to others what you do not want done to yourself.

-Real knowledge is to know the extent of one’s ignorance.

-He who speaks without modesty will find it difficult to make his words good.

-I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand.

-Everything has beauty, but not everyone sees it.

-If I am walking with two other men, each of them will serve as my teacher. I will pick out the good points of the one and imitate them, and the bad points of the other and correct them in myself.

-Virtue is more to man than either water or fire. I have seen men die from treading on water and fire, but I have never seen a man die from treading the course of virtue.

Confucius Quotes

-Be not ashamed of mistakes and thus make them crimes.

-Isn’t it a pleasure to study and practice what you have learned?

-Isn’t it also great when friends visit from distant places? If one remains not annoyed when he is not understood by people around him, isn’t he a sage?

-It is not possible for one to teach others who cannot teach his own family.

-Without feelings of respect, what is there to distinguish men from beasts?

-Education breeds confidence. Confidence breeds hope. Hope breeds peace.

-It is not possible for one to teach others who cannot teach his own family.

-He who excels in study can follow an official career.

-Forget injuries, never forget kindnesses.

-We should feel sorrow, but not sink under its oppression.

-Recompense injury with justice, and recompense kindness with kindness.

-Better a diamond with a flaw than a pebble without.

-To love a thing means wanting it to live.

-To go beyond is as wrong as to fall short.

Confucius Quotes

-In a country well governed poverty is something to be ashamed of.

-Things that are done, it is needless to speak about…things that are past, it is needless to blame.

-Learn as though you would never be able to master it; hold it as though you would be in fear of losing it.

-Do not be desirous of having things done quickly. Do not look at small advantages. Desire to have things done quickly prevents their being done thoroughly.

-Looking at small advantages prevents great affairs from being accomplished.

-The people may be made to follow a path of action, but they may not be made to understand it.

-When you have faults, do not fear to abandon them.

-The cautious seldom err.

-Men’s natures are alike, it is their habits that carry them far apart.

-It is only the wisest and the stupidest that cannot change.

-The object of the superior man is truth.

Confucius Quotes

-The essence of knowledge is, having it, to apply it not having it, to confess your ignorance.

-A man who does not plan long ahead will find trouble right at his door.

-Humility is the solid foundation of all the virtues.

-With coarse rice to eat, with water to drink, and my bended arm for a pillow – I have still joy in the midst of these things. Riches and honors acquired by unrighteousness are to me as a floating cloud.

-When anger rises, think of the consequences.

-Study the past if you would define the future.

-To be wronged is nothing unless you continue to remember it.

-The scholar who cherishes the love of comfort is not fit to be deemed a scholar.

-Wheresoever you go, go with all your heart.

-The real fault is to have faults and not amend them.

-When we see men of a contrary character, we should turn inwards and examine ourselves.

Confucius Quotes

-He with whom neither slander that gradually soaks into the mind, nor statements that startle like a wound in the flesh, are successful may be called intelligent indeed.

-The faults of a superior person are like the sun and moon. They have their faults, and everyone sees them; they change and everyone looks up to them.

-A fool despises good counsel, but a wise man takes it to heart.

-He who will not economize will have to agonize.

-I am not concerned that I am not known, I seek to be worthy to be known.

-Without an acquaintance with the rules of propriety, it is impossible for the character to be established.

-Mankind differs from the animals only by a little and most people throw that away.

-To see what is right, and not to do it, is want of courage or of principle.

-It is better to light one small candle than to curse the darkness.

-Respect yourself and others will respect you.

-When prosperity comes, do not use all of it.

Confucius Quotes

-Ignorance is the night of the mind, but a night without moon and star.

-I am not one who was born in the possession of knowledge; I am one who is fond of antiquity, and earnest in seeking it there.

-They must often change who would be constant in happiness or wisdom.

-The more man meditates upon good thoughts, the better will be his world and the world at large.

-When you know a thing, to hold that you know it; and when you do not know a thing, to allow that you do not know it – this is knowledge.

-We take greater pains to persuade others that we are happy than in endeavoring to think so ourselves.

-To put the world in order, we must first put the nation in order; to put the nation in order, we must put the family in order; to put the family in order, we must cultivate our personal life; and to cultivate our personal life, we must first set our hearts right.

-To be able to practice five things everywhere under heaven constitutes perfect virtue…They are gravity, generosity of soul, sincerity, earnestness, and kindness.

-If a man takes no thought about what is distant, he will find sorrow near at hand.

-Behave toward everyone as if receiving a great guest.

-What the superior man seeks is in himself; what the small man seeks is in others.

-There are three things to beware of through life: when a man is young, let him beware of his appetites; when he is middle-aged, of his passions; and when old, of covetousness, especially.

Confucius Quotes

-When you see a worthy person, endeavor to emulate him. When you see an unworthy person, then examine your inner self.

-The strength of a nation derives from the integrity of the home.

-When a man’s knowledge is sufficient to attain, and his virtue is not sufficient to enable him to hold, whatever he may have gained, he will lose again.

-Wealth and rank are what people desire, but unless they be obtained in the right way they may not be possessed.

-The wheel of fortune turns round incessantly, and who can say to himself, I shall today be uppermost.

-The father who does not teach his son his duties is equally guilty with the son who neglects them.

-The parents age must be remembered, both for joy and anxiety.

-When I walk along with two others, from at least one I will be able to learn.

-If you look into your own heart, you find nothing wrong there, what is there to fear?

-Study the past if you would divine the future.

-Virtue is not left to stand alone. He who practices it will have neighbors.

-Think no vice so small that you may commit it, and no virtue so small that you may over look it.

-Do not worry about holding high position; worry rather about playing your proper role.

-Do not impose on others what you yourself do not desire.

-Acquire new knowledge whilst thinking over the old, and you may become a teacher of others.

-Sincerity and truth are the basis of every virtue.

-Review the old and deducing the new makes a teacher.

-Act with kindness, but do not expect gratitude.

-Worry not that no one knows of you; seek to be worth knowing.

-He who conquers himself is the mightiest warrior.

-Ability will never catch up with the demand for it.

-To see and listen to the wicked is already the beginning of wickedness.

-Before you embark on a journey of revenge, dig two graves.

-A youth is to be regarded with respect. How do you know that his future will not be equal to our present?

-Fix your mind on truth, hold firm to virtue, rely on loving kindness, and find your recreation in the Arts.

-Boldness, without the rules of propriety, becomes insubordination.

-To be able under all circumstances to practice five things constitutes perfect virtue; these five things are gravity, generosity of soul, sincerity, earnestness, and kindness.

-Fine words and an insinuating appearance are seldom associated with true virtue.

-The will to win, the desire to succeed, the urge to reach your full potential… these are the keys that will unlock the door to personal excellence.

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